Judging by experience

Another story by Idries Shah, this one in the children's book The Old Woman and the Eagle, continues the theme that people are chained by their experiences, which shape what they see. In this story, an eagle lands in front of an old woman:

The old woman took a long, hard look at the eagle and said, "Oh my, what a funny pigeon you are!"

She figured he was a pigeon, you see, because although she had never seen an eagle, she had seen lots of pigeons.

"I am not a pigeon at all," said the eagle, drawing himself up to his full height.

"Nonsense!" said the old woman. "I've lived for more years than you've got feathers in your wings, and I know a pigeon when I see one."

Judging by one's experience fits in well with John O'Neil's article "Adults' Differing Perceptions Make It Hard to Read Johnny":

A mother, a father and a teacher sit down for a conference. A question soon arises: Are they talking about the same child?

It may not seem so. Several studies have found that evaluations of students by parents and teachers overlap on less than a third of the measures, a "pretty low" rate of agreement, said Timothy R. Konold, coordinator of research, statistics and evaluation at the University of Virginia's Curry School of Education.

Educators have generally assumed that the teacher is right, with some justification, Dr. Konold said. "Teachers have a whole classroom of kids to use as a standard" for assessing behavior, he said, "and can compare them with others."

But a new study by Dr. Konold concluded that parents and teachers focus on different aspects of children, with teachers more attuned to external behavior and parents more sensitive to emotional states.

Hmm. So, how do students and teachers focus differently with respect to achievement?